Popular Theories of Self-Confidence | Nutshell Explanation

Popular Theories of Self-Confidence | Nutshell Explanation

How many times have you questioned your decision to play in a basketball tournament or take a coveted college entrance exam? How often do we miss chances? We miss such possibilities because we lack “self-confidence,” not talent or knowledge. We often regret not fulfilling our potential and must change course. Because of habit, we fear change. We shall discuss popular theories of self-confidence in a nutshell.

In the film “Pursuit of Happyness,” Chris Gardner is knocked down multiple times. Fathers seek happiness. The lesson is to persevere and believe in yourself no matter what. “Don’t ever let someone tell you that you can’t achieve something,” Gardner told his son during a basketball game. Me neither. You sure? This scene reminds us that even your parents will try to drag you down, but you must do what makes you happy. Success is linked to confidence and self-esteem.

What are the popular theories of self-confidence?

Self-esteem and self-confidence are often interchangeable. They differ greatly. Self-confidence is our belief in our talents, whereas self-esteem is our self-evaluation and worldview.

Esteem comes from the Latin term aestimare, meaning “to appraise, value, rate, or estimate,” and expresses our self-worth. Look in the mirror—self-esteem affects your connection with yourself and society. It shows our life attitudes.

High self-esteem suggests you’re optimistic and upbeat about life’s challenges. Keep stating “I can do it,” “It may seem impossible, but I can make it,” and “You are not a failure.” You view situations as learning opportunities.

Low self-esteem impairs perception. Anxiety, fear, unmotivation, and fear of the future are some of those sentiments. In difficult conditions, you’ll think, “You’re not deserving,” “I’m not good enough,” and “I can’t do anything correctly.” You try to please everyone at work, with friends, and with family.

Social acceptance trumps health. You criticize, blame, and obsess on your inadequacies. Self-confidence is the confidence to achieve goals and overcome obstacles. “Kumpyansa sa Sarili”—from the Latin fidere, “to trust”—is Filipino for self-confidence. One needs self-confidence to participate in the world. Self-confidence inspires workers. Success depends on our confidence.

Cognitive theory of Self-Confidence

Albert Bandura, known as the Father of Cognitive Theory, developed this theory. He was born on December 4, 1925, in a small town near Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. He was the youngest of six children. After enrolling at the University of British Columbia, Albert Bandura became interested in psychology.

He began as a biological sciences major, and his interest in psychology developed quite by chance. He was a hard worker who was passionate about his work at the time. 2012 (Nabavi).

The Social Cognitive Learning Theory (SCLT) is a learning theory based on the ideas that people adapt or learn by observing others and that human thought processes are central to understanding behavior.

Bandura’s research took a more holistic turn in the 1980s, and his analyses tended to provide a more comprehensive overview of human cognition in the context of social learning. He later renamed the theory he developed from social learning theory as social cognitive theory. Bandura (Bandura, 1999).

This theory provides a framework for better understanding and forecasting human behavior. Green and Peil (2009). Bandura (2006) frequently criticizes ideas associated with American behaviorists. This is because he considers his theory to be “cognitive,” rather than “behavioral.” Despite this criticism, his emphasis on the social origins of cognitive processes is what places his work within the exogenous paradigm of developmental theories.

In short, he believes that by observing the behavior of others, individuals can learn both behaviors and cognitive strategies, and that these acquisitions can be learned without being directly reinforced. Green and Peil (2009). As stated in this theory, people learn by observing others.

Bandura’s cognitive theory emphasizes the importance of self-esteem and beliefs in human cognition, motivation, and behavior. Social cognitive theory emphasizes a self-system that allows individuals to exert some control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions.

According to this theory, an individual’s self-confidence is affected by another person’s observance. For example, observing a fellow athlete perform better than him may have an impact on his self-confidence. He may become anxious and lose motivation, or he may gain confidence in his own abilities.

Social Learning Theory of Self-Confidence

Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory proposes that a person’s social behavior is learned by observing, imitating, and modeling it. This includes attitudes and emotional reactions to others. It considers how cognitive factors such as perception, problem solving, memorization, and so on influence human behavior.

Albert Bandura (1977) developed such theory as an alternative to his colleague B.F. Skinner’s earlier work, which was known for its influence on behaviorism. His theory proposes four mediational processes that aid in determining whether a new behavior is acquired:

Attention: We can imitate behavior if it first catches our attention. Given the number of behaviors we observe and do not imitate on a daily basis, it is clear that attention is critical in determining whether a behavior influences imitation. The more interesting or similar something is at this stage, the more we notice it. A person’s attention may be drawn if the personality he is observing is appealing or unusual.

Retention: At this stage, we are tested on how well we remember the specific behavior. We cannot carry out the behavior if we do not recall it. So, while a behavior may be observed, the observer will not perform the behavior unless a memory is formed. Because social learning is not immediate, retention is critical in behavior modeling.

Reproduction: The third condition is the ability to replicate the behavior demonstrated by the model. This means that the observer must be able to replicate or reproduce the action, which may be difficult for a learner who is not developmentally ready to do so. It influences our decision to try to perform the retained behavior.

Motivation: This is the final required procedure for modeling to occur; learners must be able to demonstrate what they have learned. Please keep in mind that because these four conditions vary with an individual’s behavior, different people will reproduce the same behavior differently. Positive reinforcement and constructive criticism are critical components of motivation.

This is known as derivative reinforcement in this process. Rather than direct participation or experience, it entails learning while observing the outcomes of his/her actions for other people. In general, self-confidence boosts motivation. If an underperforming employee or student improves his or her performance through a series of motivating phrases and recognition from his or her professor or superior.

Attribution Style Theory

According to Kendra Cherry’s article, attribution is the process of inferring the causes of events or behaviors in social psychology. In reality, attribution is something that we all do on a daily basis, usually without being aware of the underlying processes and biases that lead to our conclusions.

On a typical day, you probably make numerous attributions about your own behavior as well as the behavior of the people you meet, whether they are on your way to school, your office, or even the coffee shop.

When you get a low grade on a quiz in law school, you may blame the professor for not adequately explaining the material or the lesson, completely ignoring the fact that you did not study or cram your way through. When a classmate gets a high grade on the same quiz, you may attribute their success solely to luck, ignoring the fact that they have excellent study habits.

What impact do attributions for behavior have on your life? The attributions you make every day have a significant impact on your self-confidence and feelings, as well as how you think and interact with others.

The social psychologists Heider, Kelley, Jones, and Ross developed and founded attribution theory. This theory is primarily concerned with how people explain or attribute different causes to events.

According to the “Attribution Theory,” it is natural for people to seek explanations or causes for their own success or failure. It assumes that people will interpret their environment in order to maintain a positive self-image. There are three major categories of attributes that can be used to explain success or failure:

  • Internal versus external
  • Is it stable or unstable?
  • Manageable or unmanageable

Internal factors include your intelligence, ignorance, or lack of interest, among other things. External factors are anything or anyone other than yourself that can be instilled. A result can be perceived as stable or unstable. If you believe the outcome will become stable, it is likely to be the same the next time.

Conversely, if you believe that such an outcome will be unstable, the outcome will most likely be different on another occasion. If you prefer the safe explanation, you may rationalize: “I’ll fail anyway, why bother putting in so much effort?” If you prefer an unstable explanation, on the other hand, you may believe you can achieve your goal if you put in a lot more effort.

Factors influencing success or failure can be either controllable or uncontrollable. A controllable factor is one that you can change or influence if you want to. Uncontrollable factors are those that you cannot easily change or that are beyond your control.

You explain your situation by pointing to uncontrollable factors if you, for example, rely on the professor for success or compete with your peers for the few available high grades.

If you fail in your academics, you can blame it on external or uncontrollable factors such as your professor’s performance and punctuality or the quality of service provided by the school.

This situation appears to be stable. No matter how much effort you put in, you will fail. In other words, you have very good reasons for your failure, and you blame others.

What is the importance of self-control?

What exactly is self-control? It serves as an executive function required for the achievement of an individual goal. It is a cognitive process that allows people to self-regulate their behavior in order to achieve personal goals. This advanced executive process enables us to inhibit impulsive behavioral responses in favor of more appropriate, context-specific behavior.

According to this theory, one can resist the desire for something he perceives he wants. According to Kelly Miller’s article What is Self-Control Theory, the ability to control our impulses is based in the prefrontal cortex of the brain.

This area of the human brain is densely packed with complex neural connections that allow us to plan, exert willpower, and achieve our objectives. In a world full of competing stimuli, maintaining self-control is a draining process that saps human vitality. In other words, it takes a lot of energy to effectively suppress our impulses. Thus:

  • When purchasing luxuries in a department store, you may believe that you wanted it regardless of its price, but you resist the temptation and do not purchase it because you later realize that you do not need it.
  • When you buy foods online, you are tempted by the delicious and enticing foods, but you realize that you can simply prepare your own food and save more money.
  • When you buy your first car and realize how much more expensive gasoline is, not to mention the cost of car maintenance.

Consuming an excessive amount of soft drinks and sweets without realizing the negative effects on your body. Psychologists have investigated why humans make the decisions they do, particularly those that lead to confinement. Our personal experiences are postulated to completely change the way we make decisions based on those experiences.

Others regard it as impulsive purchasing. It is not wrong to purchase such items, but you must have the financial means to do so. While scrolling own through your shopping app or ordering food online, we have a saying in Filipino that goes, “Minsan lang naman.”

We often reward ourselves for our efforts or have something to celebrate. However, living above our means or salary can be hazardous. There are advantages to exercising self-control over self-gratification; it is critical to one’s success.

Effective self-control application may lead to academic and occupational success, as well as social wellness. Self-control is linked to better mental health, a healthier body, lower crime rates, and longer life spans.

According to Mark Manson’s book “The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck,” It discusses the importance of not caring about everything and focusing on your own life, as well as how caring about everything and what others think can lead to disappointments and regression.

Final thoughts

Admitting your insecurities paradoxically boosts your confidence and charisma. Truthful confrontation builds trust and respect. You gain confidence and endurance by enduring your worries.

According to this passage, accepting one’s insecurities makes one more confident. Though paradoxical, it’s true. Self-confidence takes time and effort to build. Honesty about your flaws and planning to fix them can raise your self-esteem.

Acknowledging your shortcomings and insecurities and leaving your “comfort zone” are difficult, but they are the first steps to self-confidence. An honest debate and disagreement may anger you, but it will make you stronger. Try something new now. Remember that growth happens where you don’t belong.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *